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One might be sure that the most natural human inclination is friendship. So, to conclude, genuine Christianity does not enter into partisan battle against a particular political or economic order, it fights not the positive qualities of all social orders, but their specific corruptions. Both regimes could be positive in a given situation, but there could be nothing positive in a corrupted moral sense in people and rulers.
I have mentioned Aquinas, and already have begun to speak about good and evil, so it would be right to explain in a few lines the Thomistic conception of evil. It could give us a better understanding of Christian politics as moral action. According to St. Thomas, every agent acts for a good end and if the good end is natural for the agent, i. If the agent fails to achieve some end for which he was not appointed, this also cannot be described, from a general point of view, as evil, although the agent might consider it as such.
He would not have peace, because he does not accept the advice of Paul that teaches contentment with the given situation and abiding in the natural service and direction of will. This is so because the result of an action differs from the intention of the agent. One is certain, that evil, although caused without intention, should be always voluntary, that is, evil is always a result of free will that was wrongly directed.
Politics Law and Morality Essays by V.s. Soloviev Paperback – October 10 2014
It is a moral problem because the agent is able to inspect his natural inclinations, through his intuition and right reason, and act accordingly, and yet he fails to do so. In other words, he chooses a lie instead of truth, something unnatural or unfit for him, and he makes this voluntarily, often under the weakness of habit or external temptation. Good, on the other hand, is what expands the completeness of a whole, adding to it something that was still lacking. He just needs to accept it voluntarily and abide in it. This, we should say, is a positive, optimistic Aristotelian and Christian philosophy.
It suggests that reality, or any agent as part of it, has a God given teleological direction towards God, i. And that also argues that all created, i. What makes of a political regime evil is its direction to nothingness, i. Satan Cast Down ca by Gustave Dore — Evil has no essence; it is always a privation. And as such, it is not natural to anyone and anything, since anyone and anything is naturally directed to fulfillment in good.
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That is precisely why the evil is evil for the agent: not because it is in the agent by nature , but because it impedes the process of its natural fulfillment. It is not natural for an authority not to perform its duty, but this does not make of authority an evil thing in itself. As it is not natural for autonomy to aim at imaginary goods, but this does not make of autonomy something evil in itself.
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Aquinas says, and here I simultaneously agree and do not agree with him, that the good end depends on the approval of reason, and the evil end, or evil, depends on the discord of reason. I agree with this conclusion as far as we speak about the right reason orthos logos , the reason that has discovered the good, and I do not agree, insofar as I think that reason alone and by itself is not capable of formulating the good and natural end.
It needs the help of intuition. The right reason, for me, is namely reason acting along with intuition. Intuition and reason are complementary: where intuition fails, reason must come, and where reason fails, intuition must act. Do not be afraid! National interest is not in the search for dominance or supremacy, but in the fulfillment of the nation as a community within the community of other nations.
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Supremacy, that is so cherished in secular politics, is not the natural end for a nation. It is community that is natural for every people and person. It was hinted above that the most natural human inclination is friendship, and the nation is a kind of friendship and as any collective of friends, of people capable and disposed to communion, the nation should naturally expand its interaction with the world, and yet never lose its specific character and calling. Self-concealment, isolation, is not divine, i. How serious is the failure of national egoism is revealed in the gospel with the conviction of Jesus in the name of the people.
On the contrary, in its ideal state, the nation cares for each member equally. To cut a member of an organic body is, ultimately , never good for the health and survival of the body. To cure it, is right; to correct it, is right; but to sever and destroy it completely, without hope for restoration, is to make the body eternally crippled. It is to prolong its life, but never to save it completely, excellently, and wholly. It is even worse when the nation destroys its conscience , its spirit although, we may note, conscience is always the first victim of misguided will.
But as it has been said, a particular evil, the evil that happened accidentally to a particular agent, could never be an evil in general , i. Does Christianity abolish nationality? Nationality is not abolished, but nationalism is.
Communication Error Occurred.
Every communion presupposes some understanding that my fate is somehow related to your fate, that my action somehow reflects, changes, and impacts your action and life. Sociality presupposes the existence and consciousness of an organic inter-dependence. But Frank says that solidarity is not the only principle of sociality.
From the point of view of personal freedom, only self-constraint could preserve social life. Duty is practically doing what ought to be done naturally, according to the social nature of man. Vladimir Wozniuk Editor. Publication Date. November Studies in Russian Literature and Theory. Political and Social Science.
Page Count. Max Stirner. A Student's Guide to Political Philosophy.
Harvey C Mansfield. The Will to Doubt. Understanding History.
Divine Fury. Darrin M. Twilight of Idols and Anti-Christ. A Confession and Other Religious Writings. Leo Tolstoy. Political Ideas in the Romantic Age. Three Critics of the Enlightenment. God and the State. Michael Bakunin. Robert Royal. The New Science of Politics. Eric Voegelin. Frederick Engels. Marx On Religion.