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Devon , or Devonshire , a maritime county in the s. From Exeter to the confines of Cornwall extends the wide and barren tract called Dartmoor; but the vale of Exeter, comprising from , to , acres, and the south extremity of the county called South Hams , limited by a line drawn from Torbay to Plymouth Sound, are amongst the most fertile districts of England. Tin, lead, iron, copper, manganese, granite, and the clay used by potters and pipe-makers are the chief mineral products. The geological formation of the Old Red Sandstone is so largely developed that the term Devonian has to some extent become its synonym.
Agriculture is in a somewhat backward state, owing, probably, to the general preference given to dairy husbandry, for which the extent and richness of its grass-lands make the county most  suitable. Wheat, barley, beans, pease, and potatoes are the principal crops. About three-fourths of the county is under crops or in pasture. There is a large trade in butter, cheese, and live-stock, and the 'clotted' cream and cider of Devonshire are well known as specialities of the county. There are seven parliamentary divisions, each with one member.
Snell, Devonshire, Historical, Descriptive, and Biographical. They are divided into lower, middle, and upper series, the middle most abounding in fossils, including corals, crinoids, brachiopods, and molluscs. The terrestrial and lacustrine equivalents are known as the Old Red Sandstone.
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It is the seat of one of the royal dockyards, and an important naval and military station. A bastioned wall and fosse defend the town on the north-east and south sides, while the sea entrance is protected by heavy batteries on Mount Wise.
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Connected with the dockyards and fortifications are the gun wharf, foundries, machine-works, rope-walks, store-houses, and naval and military barracks. It has no special trade beyond that connected with the dockyards and Government works. Formerly a parliamentary borough, returning two members to Parliament, Devonport now gives its name to a parliamentary division of Plymouth, with which it is amalgamated since Nov.
Devonshire , Spencer Compton Cavendish, eighth Duke of, long known as Marquess of Hartington, born in , died He was the eldest surviving son of the seventh Duke of Devonshire, whom he succeeded in the dukedom in He was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he graduated as M. He was attached in to Earl Granville's Russian mission, and in was elected as a Liberal one of the members for North Lancashire.
In he was for a short time a Lord of the Admiralty, and he then became Under-Secretary for War, being raised to Cabinet rank as War Secretary in In he lost his seat for North Lancashire, but became Postmaster-General under Gladstone, and was returned for the Radnor boroughs. In he was appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland. He went out with the Gladstone ministry in , and on Gladstone's retirement he became the leader of the Liberal party. On the fall of the Conservative Government in he was elected for North-East Lancashire, and became Secretary for India under Gladstone, being transferred to the War Office in In the general election of he was returned for the Rossendale division of Lancashire.
He strenuously opposed Gladstone's Home Rule Scheme of , and became the leader of the Liberal Unionists, but long declined to take office in the Cabinet. In , however, he became Lord President of the Council, and from to he was President of the newly-instituted Board of Education. In he withdrew from co-operating with Mr. Balfour as Premier, mainly because he disliked the fiscal changes proposed by Chamberlain. He then accepted the position of head of the Free-Trade Unionists. Dew is the name given to the minute drops of water which at certain times appear by night upon grass, flowers, foliage, and other surfaces which readily radiate heat.
The first attempts at a scientific explanation of dew were made early in the nineteenth century, when Dr. Wells propounded his theory on the subject.
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According to this, the origin is to be found in the moisture previously contained in a vaporous state in the atmosphere. During the day the earth both absorbs and emits heat, but by night its supply of warmth is cut off, while it continues, under favouring circumstances, to lose heat by radiation into surrounding space. For any given state of the atmosphere, in respect of the amount of aqueous vapour it contains in a specified volume, there is a certain temperature at which it can hold just that amount and no more in suspension.
If it be cooled to that temperature, it begins to deposit its moisture in the liquid form, and if the cooling proceeds further, more and more is deposited. This particular temperature is the dew-point appropriate to the given state of humidity of the air.
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While there is a certain amount of truth in the foregoing theory, it does not contain the whole facts of the case. John Aitken, of Falkirk, Stirlingshire, established by experiments that in most cases probably the dew found on plants does not come mainly from the atmosphere. To some extent it exudes from the plants themselves. They derive moisture from the soil, and in the process of supplying their tissues it passes to their outer surfaces, whence in the daytime it is evaporated into the air.
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By night the fall of temperature checks evaporation of this moisture, and when it reaches their surfaces, it may remain there in the form of dew-drops. Also, moisture  is condensed out of the atmosphere upon the cooler plant surfaces, but even this has more often been yielded not long before to the atmosphere through the medium of the plant tissues, so that upon the whole the plants play a much more important part in the process than had been supposed.
Dew is most copiously produced when there is a large difference between the day and night temperatures. Hence it is favoured by the absence of clouds, which would throw back much of the heat radiated from the earth. Other favouring circumstances are a still condition of the atmosphere, good radiating surfaces, and an abundant supply of moisture in the soil. In he was elected Jacksonian professor of experimental philosophy at Cambridge, an office which he still holds, and in a professorial fellow of St.
Peter's College. In the latter year he also became Fullerian professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution, London. He is a fellow of the Royal Society, has been awarded several medals and prizes for his scientific researches, including the Rumford medal in for his investigations into the properties of matter at its lowest temperatures, this branch of science, with which the liquefaction of air and gases is connected, being peculiarly his own.
He was the first to reduce hydrogen gas to the liquid and solid form. Together with Sir F.
Abel, he was the discoverer of cordite. He is an honorary graduate of several universities, a late president of the Chemical Society and vice-president of the Royal Society, and was president of the British Association in He has contributed numerous papers to the proceedings of the learned societies of Great Britain, and was knighted in His collected papers on spectroscopy appeared in Dewar Flask , a flask devised by Dewar for the examination of liquefied gases.
It consists of an inner vessel surrounded by a vacuum, which much reduces loss or gain of heat by the liquid. The principle now finds practical application in the 'Thermos Flask'. Total pop. It is common in some parts of England. The Canadian dewberry R. His father removing into the Transvaal, he fought as a field-cornet at Majuba. As member of the Volksraad he helped to draw the two Dutch republics together, and in the South African War commanded first in Natal, and then in the west under Cronje, whose rescue at Paardeberg he attempted, but unsuccessfully. After March, , he distinguished himself by his attacks on the British lines of communication, and by his skill in evading capture.
He became commander-in-chief of the Free State forces, and was the only undefeated Boer general at the end of the war, after which he, with Louis Botha and Delarey, came to Europe to collect funds for his countrymen. Captured at Waterburg on 1st Dec. He published The Three Years' War in He began active service in the Mediterranean squadron, and in , under Farragut, he was present at the passage of Forts Jackson and St.
Lieutenant-commander in , commander in , he was in command of the Asiatic squadron in , when he destroyed the Spanish fleet at Manila on 1st May. He was made Admiral of the Navy and was thanked by Congress. From till his death he was President of the General Board of the Navy.
Educated at the University of Vermont, he received his Ph. Professor of philosophy at the Universities of Minnesota, Michigan, and Chicago, where he was also director of the School of Education, he became professor of philosophy at Columbia University in He is one of the two William James being the other American leaders of pragmatism , a philosophical conception according to which questions that have no bearing on experience and on life have no significance whatever, and are meaningless.
See Pragmatism. De Wint , Peter, English landscape painter in water-colours, born , died He studied in the schools of the Royal Academy, where he occasionally exhibited; but most of his pictures were shown in the exhibitions of the Water-colour Society.
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English scenery was his favourite subject. He occasionally painted in oil with marked success. De Witt , Jan, Grand-Pensionary of Holland, celebrated as a statesman and for his tragical end, was the son of Jacob de Witt, burgomaster of Dort, and was born in He became the leader of the political party opposed to the Prince of Orange, and in , two years after the death of William II, was made Grand-Pensionary. In the war with England was renewed, and conducted by De Witt with great ability till its termination in De Witt's popularity, already on the decline, suffered still further in the troubles thus occasioned, and he felt it necessary to resign his office of Grand-Pensionary.
At this time his brother Cornelius, who had been tried and put to torture for conspiring against the life of the young Prince of Orange, lay in prison. Jan de Witt went to visit him, when a tumult suddenly arose amongst the people, and both brothers were murdered, 20th Aug.
ipdwew0030atl2.public.registeredsite.com/275639-top-smartphone.php De Witt was a man of high character, simple and modest in all his relations. Motley, History of the United Netherlands. Dew-point , the temperature at which the air is saturated with the water-vapour which it contains. If the temperature of the air falls to the dew-point, dew is deposited.
The dew-point is determined by means of an instrument called a hygrometer. When the air is 'dry', the dew-point is low, and evaporation proceeds rapidly, whilst a 'moist' atmosphere is one whose temperature is near the dew-point, and in which evaporation takes place slowly. Dewsbury , a town, England, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, and 30 miles south-west of the town of York, chiefly engaged in the manufacture of heavy woollen cloths, including blankets, carpets, rugs, flannels, and baizes.
In it was made a municipal borough; in a parliamentary borough, returning one member.