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This page contains drivers and documentation for the nForce chipset. The chipset includes hardware support for IDE disk control, ethernet networking, audio support, win modem support, and a USB controller. These packages have support for ethernet networking and basic ACI audio. There is no win modem support.

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You will need to accept this license prior to downloading any files. If you are using one of the distributions mentioned below, and haven't installed a different kernel or significantly modified the default one , the installation will be very simple. If you don't use one of the distributions listed or have a custom kernel, please choose one of the alternative installation packages. Other distributions, in the name of usability, tend to install many services by default, and sometimes they are not properly configured remember the Lion Ramen.

Debian's installation is not as limited as OpenBSD no daemons are active per default , but it's a good compromise. The Debian distribution boasts a large and growing number of software packages, probably more than provided by many proprietary operating systems. The more packages installed, the greater the potential for security issues in any given system. More and more people are examining source code for flaws. There are many advisories related to source code audits of the major software components included in Debian. Whenever such source code audits turn up security flaws, they are fixed and an advisory is sent to lists such as Bugtraq.

Bugs that are present in the Debian distribution usually affect other vendors and distributions as well.

There are currently at least two linux distributions certified at different EAL levels. Notice that some of the CC tests are being integrated into the Linux Testing Project which is available in Debian in the ltp.

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Bastille Linux , originally oriented toward other Linux distributions Red Hat and Mandrake , it currently works also for Debian. Steps are being taken to integrate the changes made to the upstream version into the Debian package, named bastille. Some people believe, however, that a hardening tool does not eliminate the need for good administration. One of Debian's great strengths is the wide variety of choice available between packages that provide the same functionality DNS servers, mail servers, ftp servers, web servers, etc.

This can be confusing to the novice administrator when trying to determine which package is right for you. The best match for a given situation depends on a balance between your feature and security needs. Here are some questions to ask yourself when deciding between similar packages:.

Is the package mature? The version number really does not tell you about its maturity. Try to trace the software's history. Does the software provide all the functionality you need? Does it provide more than you really need? For services not covered here, check the program's documentation, or general Linux information. Most of the security guidelines for Unix systems also apply to Debian.

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If you do not like users connecting to your POP3 daemon, for example, and retrieving information about your system, you might want to remove or change the banner the service shows to users. Other software is not as easy to change. Take care not to remove the first part SSH The Debian security team cannot possibly analyze all the packages included in Debian for potential security vulnerabilities, since there are just not enough resources to source code audit the whole project.

However, Debian does benefit from the source code audits made by upstream developers. As a matter of fact, a Debian developer could distribute a Trojan in a package, and there is no possible way to check it out. Even if introduced into a Debian branch, it would be impossible to cover all the possible situations in which the Trojan would execute.

This is why Debian has a "no guarantees" license clause. However, Debian users can take confidence in the fact that the stable code has a wide audience and most problems would be uncovered through use. Installing untested software is not recommended in a critical system if you cannot provide the necessary code audit.


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In any case, if there were a security vulnerability introduced into the distribution, the process used to include packages using digital signatures ensures that the problem can be ultimately traced back to the developer. The Debian project has not taken this issue lightly. Of course, you can change the default Debian permissions on your system. The current policy regarding log files and configuration files is that they are world readable unless they provide sensitive information. Some applications may not work if the configuration file they depend on cannot be read.

Some packages i. As a matter of fact, the same questions stand for any other user. Since Debian's installation does not place any file under that directory, there's no sensitive information to protect there. If you feel these permissions are too broad for your system, consider tightening them to For users, read Limiting access to other user's information, Section 4.

This Debian security mailing list thread has more on this issue. The default console log level for any given kernel is 7, which means that any message with lower priority will appear in the console. Usually, firewalls the LOG rule and some other security tools log lower that this priority, and thus, are sent directly to the console. To reduce messages sent to the console, you can use dmesg -n option, see dmesg 8 , which examines and controls the kernel ring buffer.

Use a lower number for -c if you are still seeing them. Yes and no. If you do not intend to install new services, you can safely remove those users who do not own any files in your system and do not run any services. In any case, the default behavior is that UID's from 0 to 99 are reserved in Debian, and UID's from to are created by packages on install and deleted when the package is purged. To easily find users who don't own any files, execute the following command[ 81 ] run it as root, since a common user might not have enough permissions to go through some sensitive directories :.

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These users are provided by base-passwd. Look in its documentation for more information on how these users are handled in Debian. The list of default users with a corresponding group follows:. Daemons that don't need to own any files can run as nobody. The daemon user is also handy for locally installed daemons. Thus, if its password is set to something easy to guess such as "" , anyone can sync the system at the console even if they have don't have an account.

This is explained in policy. The user and group are used for other purposes by various MTA's as well.

Files in the news spool are often owned by user and group news. It owns spool and configuration files. Users in the uucp group may run uucico.

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For example, group proxy is used by pdnsd , and squid runs as user proxy. It is not installed on new systems. Web content should not be owned by this user, or a compromised web server would be able to rewrite a web site. Data written out by web servers, including log files, will be owned by www-data. Some mailing list programs may run as this user as well. Thus, no files on a system should be owned by this user or group. This is used by write and wall to enable them to write to other people's TTYs. Members of this group can reconfigure the modem, dial anywhere, etc. The users in this group cannot configure the modem, but may run the programs that make use of it.


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  7. It can be used locally to give a user the ability to manage system source code. If you have removed a system user and have not made a backup of your password and group files you can try recovering from this issue using update-passwd see update-passwd 8.


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    The 'adm' group are usually administrators, and this group permission allows them to read log files without having to su. The default behavior in Debian is that each user has its own, private group. Additional groups were created and used to restrict access to shared files associated with different project directories.