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The size dependent dielectric function was used to model the gold shells. The results were compared to those of a previous study that uses Mie theory. The optical response of nanoshell dimers at different separations was also calculated and the results were compared with studies that use Wigner Eckart theorem, boundary elements method and experiments. Our model results were consistently found to be in very good agreement with those of the other studies.

Engineering Chemistry: Rare Topics

The finite elements method has proven its reliability to model the optical responses of nanoparticles and can be used to investigate more advanced nanoparticle designs that would be too complicated to model analytically. Article :. DOI: Even aperiodic multilayer assemblies can easily be prepared. The concept of electrostatically driven assembly of multilayer structures allows for the incorporation of a wealth of different materials. However, polymers as multifunctional materials also offer the choice of building up layered structures through other types of interaction.

Surface Engineering of Nanomaterials.

One of the most commonly studied, nonelectrostatic interactions used in LbL assembly to date is hydrogen bonding. By exploiting this interaction, uncharged materials can be successfully incorporated into multilayer films. The pioneering studies in LbL multilayer assembly based on hydrogen bonding were reported independently by Stockton and Rubner, and Zhang's group in Stockton and Rubner investigated the use of polyaniline in alternation with a variety of water-soluble macromolecules, such as poly vinyl-pyrrolidone PVPON , poly vinyl alcohol PVA , polyacrylamide, and PEO, in which the oxygen atoms on the polymer backbone can be hydrogen-bonding acceptors, or poly N-isopropylacrylamide , in which both an acceptor carbonyl and donor amide are present.

Cell Surface Engineering: Fabrication of Functional Nanoshells (Smart Materials Series)

Besides, film deposition is possible with polymer pairs containing side groups with carbazole and dinitrophenyl units that can form charge-transfer complexes. Covalent bonds can be used to assemble LbL films having high stability due to the covalent bonds formed, and therefore these do not disassemble with changes in pH or ionic strength. Bergbreiter and coworkers performed the first example of sequential covalent assembly of polymers, using a co-polymer of maleic anhydride reacted in alternation with a polyamidoamine dendrimer.

Blanchard and coworkers also investigated approaches to prepare multilayer films using a sequential covalent strategy. Inspired by dopamine self-polymerizing at alkaline pH to form adherent polymer coatings on a large variety of substrates, synthetic polymers with catechol and amine functionalities may be useful as "universal" LbL primers. The synthetic catecholamine polymers adsorb to virtually all surfaces and can serve as a platform for LbL assembly in a surface-independent fashion. Besides, click chemistry refers to a set of covalent reactions with high reaction yields that can be performed under extremely mild conditions.

This technique provides a simple and general method for the assembly of polyelectrolyte films of controlled thickness and that the click moiety provides stable crosslinks within the films.


The assembly of oppositely charged nanoparticles without polymers was first reported in The variety of inorganic shapes and compositions of the nanocomponents available for the LbL assembly process has led to an exceptional growth in the fabrication of LbL composites. Various assembly approaches have been employed to assemble polymers or nanoparticles in an ordered manner and to investigate the scope of potential applications. Polymers and inorganic nanocrystals have been studied in detail to create unique architectures inspired from Nature by manipulating the specific interactions.

The LbL approach for assembling polymers with inorganic nanoparticles provides the opportunity to combine the electronic, optical, and magnetic properties of inorganic nanostructures with unique physical responses of macromolecules.

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For example, Rubner and coworkers used LbL assembly for oppositely charged nanoparticles without polymers, which exhibited antireflection, antifogging, and self-cleaning properties. LbL assembly of biomolecules with inorganic nanocomponents also leads to a new direction in the field of biomedical research, and the development of new technologies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Biological cells possess a wide variety of shapes and sizes, thus, using them as templates would allow the production of capsules with a wide range of morphologies.

In the pioneering work on this topic, Escherichia coli E. This technique employs the step-wise self-assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers on the biological templates with subsequent dissolution of the biological core, yields polyelectrolyte microcapsules of controlled size and shape that essentially replicate the morphology of original cells.

The nature of the polyelectrolyte species, as well as solution properties and digestion procedures of the biological templates seem to influence the final properties of the microcapsule.

Cell Surface Engineering: Fabrication of Functional Nanoshells

Alternating adsorption of PAH and PSS onto charged latex particles always results in a reversal of the surface charge, independent of the layer number. However, alternating adsorption of the same polyelectrolytes onto the RBC surface produces a reversal of the surface potential only from the third layer onwards, with increasing potential differences up to the seventh layer. Toggle navigation.

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Mendaftar Login Registrasi Fundraising: Cell Surface Engineering: Fabrication of Functional Nanoshells Rawil Fakhrullin , Insung Choi , Yuri Lvov Cell surface engineering is an emerging field concerning cell surface modifications to enhance its functionalities. The book introduces the reader to the area of surface-functionalized cells and summarizes recent developments in the area including fabrication, characterization, applications and nanotoxicity.

Topics covered include recent approaches for the functionalization of cells with nanomaterials polymer nanofilms and nanoparticles , fabrication of functional biomimetic devices and assemblies based on nanoparticle-modified microbial cells and artificial spores the bioinspired encapsulation of living cells with tough nanoshells The book provides an interdisciplinary approach to the topic with authors from both biological and chemical backgrounds.

This multidisciplinary view makes the book suitable for those interested in biomaterials, biochemistry, microbiology and colloid chemistry, providing both an introduction for postgraduate students as well as a comprehensive summary for those already working in the area biomaterials, biochemistry, microbiology and colloid chemistry.

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